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Coat of arms

National anthem

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 General information

Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.

  • 3-Letter abbreviation: AUS
  • 2-Letter abbreviation: AU
  • Country common name: Australia
  • Country official name: Commonwealth of Australia
  • Continent: Australia/Oceania
  • Capital: Canberra
  • Other major cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Newcastle, Wollongong
  • Currency: Australian dollar
  • Official languages: English
  • Motto: "Advance Australia."
 Geographic information
  • Surface area: 7,686,850  km²
  • Highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
  • Neighbouring countries: None
  • Neighbouring seas and oceans: Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
  • Population (in millions): 24.39
  • Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant (in US dollars): 49,927
  • Density (inhabitants per km²): 3.1
  • Average age (in years): 37.2
  • Life expectancy at birth (in years): 82.45
 Telephone & Internet communication
  • Country international telephone code: + 61
  • Internet code: .au
  • Number of Internet users: 20,679,490 (85.1 % of the pupulation, year 2017)